ebook Longman Vocational A-level Travel and Tourism Ray YOUELL
Defining travel and tourism,
Key topics in this section:
- Introduction – what is travel and tourism?
- Defining travel and tourism
- The main type of tourism ( domestic, inbound, outbound)
- The reasons why people travel ( leisure, business, visiting friends and relatives)
Introduction – what is travel and tourism?
A simple answer to this question is that travel and tourism is big business! It is set to become the world’s biggest industry in the early years of the new millennium, with more people than ever before travelling in their own countries and exploring new destination abroad. It covers all aspects of people travelling away from home, whether for leisure, business or visiting friends and relatives, and the industry that supports this activity. The travel and tourism industry is very wide-ranging , covering may different sectors as shown in figure I.I.
Figure shows us that there are six main sectors in the travel and tourism industry:
- Tourist attractions- e.g. Alton Towers, Warwick Castle, local museums
- Transportation- e.g. airlines, coach operators, rail companies , car hire
- Accommodation and catering- e.g. hotels, villas, apartments, camping
- Public sector tourism- e.g. tourist boards, local authority tourism departments
- Tour operators- e.g. Thomson, Airtours, Superbreak
- Travel agents- e.g. Lunn Poly, Going Places, Tomas Cook
We will investigate each of these sectors in more detail later in this unit.
Defining travel and tourism
There are many definitions of travel and tourism used throughout the world. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) , affiliated to the United Nations and recognised as the leading international body on global tourism , states that tourism comprises:
... the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (World Tourism Organisation , 1993)
Browse this website: www.world-tourism.org
Probably the most widely accepted definition of tourism in use in the UK today is:
Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and activities during their stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions (Tourism Society, 1976)
Browse this website: www.toursoc.org.uk
- Away from their normal place of residence ( although they will be returning home)
- On a visit that is temporary and short-term
- Engaged in activities which would normally be associated with leisure and tourism
- Not necessarily staying away from home overnight; they may be on a day trip or excursion
- Not always away from home for holiday purposes; they could be on business and still qualify as tourists.
However, neither definition mentions the impacts, both negative and positive, that travel and tourism has on the environment and the people who live in destinations. This topic is discussed later in this unit and in greater detail in Unit 2: Tourism Development.
The main types of tourism
It is very important to remember that tourism is not just about going abroad! There is a common misconception in Britain that travel and tourism is only concerned with taking overseas holidays; this could not be further from the reality of the truth. Research shows us that British people take nearly five times as many tourist trips within the UK as they take abroad, but the majority do prefer overseas destinations for their main holidays.
There are three main types of tourism:
Domestic t tourism: when people take holiday, short breaks and day trips in their own country
Incoming/inbound tourism: A form of international tourism which deals with people entering another country from their own country of origin or another country which is not their home.
Outbound tourism: a form of international tourism which concerns people travelling away from their main country of residence.
A few simple examples will help to clarify what can sometimes be a confusing concept.
Domestic tourism: The Smith family from Birmingham enjoying a two-week holiday in a caravan in Scarborough.
Incoming /inbound tourism: M. et Mme Du Pont from Limoges sampling the delights of Cardiff as part of a driving tour of England and Wales.
Outbound tourism: The Smith family from Birmingham deciding to give Scarborough a miss this year and taking a week’s holiday at EuroDisney in France.
As activity( carry out a small-scale survey of the rest of your group to find out how many people took their last holiday abroad and what proportion stayed in the UK. Find out the main reasons for taking holidays abroad.)